electroplating current density
To a good quality plating plating conditions must be appropriate, and continuous plating (high-speed plating) plating the first condition is the current density. The so-called current density per unit area is passed by the electrode amperage, generally A / d ãŽ¡, expressed or abbreviated as ASD. Current density in the plating operation is very important variables, such as coating the organization, the distribution of film thickness, current efficiency, there are a great relationship. Current density is divided into anode current density and cathode current density, commonly known as the current density, refers to the cathode current density.
First, the current density calculation: the terminal shape is irregular, so we can only calculate a single plating tankã€‘ ã€average current density, and can not calculate the local current density.
Average current density (ASD) = amperage power plating tank (AMP) / plating area (dm2)
Terminal consecutive plating industry, the calculation of the cathode current density, it must first know the length of the bath and the single terminal plating area, and then calculate the total plating tank plating area.
For example: there is a continuous plating machine terminals, nickel slot length of 1.5 meters, like the pitch-plated terminals 1.0mm, each terminal plating area of 20mm2, this open current 60Amp, how much does the average current density?
1. Electroplating tank terminal number = 1.5 Ã— 1000/1.0 = 1500
2. Electroplating bath plating area = 1500 Ã— 20 = 30000mm2 = 3.0m2
3. The average current density = 60Amp/3.0dm2 = 20ASD
Second, the current density and plating area of the relationship:
The same (or equivalent copies) of the current, smaller plating area who are subject to the current density. The plating area is bigger, which is subject to the current density is smaller. For example, if the following diagram to open 100 amperes, with a total area of 15dm2, the average current density of 6.7ASD. However, if it is calculated into two areas, A zone area 5dm2, B zone current 10dm2, the Second District are subject to the current Members 50A, then the A, the local current
10ASD, B zone current 5ASD. Lee A, which shows the current B, twice, so there will be uneven thickness (thickness of the black block area on behalf of)
Third, the current density and the relationship between anode and cathode:
Surface structure of the terminal does not rule in the common current, the terminal site of the short distance from the anode is called the local high current area (a), the site distance from the anode is called the local low-current region (b). Therefore, there will be uneven thickness distribution (black block area on behalf of film thickness.)
Fourth, current density and Harrington Tank Experiment (Hull cell) of the relationship:
Each plating solution has a certain current density range of operations, such as tin alloy high-speed plating solution, and its operating current density range of approximately 2 ï¹ 30ASD, will show the current density is too high rough coating, and even burn. Low current density will show the fog, or leakage of coating deposition. Evaluation, however, (or watch) the operating current density range syrup, generally we can see Harrington slot the result shows that because the anode surface and Harrington slot between the cathode surface is not parallel to the surface, away from the anode closer to the negative side extreme than the current density far away from the anode surface are large, so you can compare from the high current density area to low current density area of the plating condition. Harrington experiment is therefore all the electroplating factory and medicine are essential business analysis tool, its advantages are: A. The chemical analysis could not find the chemical analysis of the composition B. Composition C. to be time-consuming a very small amount will affect the plating D. The Present Composition of plating bath and the phenomenon of bad will happen to know in advance.
Fifth, current density and plating sub-slot relation:
Terminals in the dip tank, due to the conductive terminals at both ends in the external tank plating child, so the cathode (pin) current is sub-slot from the slot at both ends to the middle of transmission, sub-tank plating caused by exposure at both ends of the terminal current (high current region), much larger than the sub-slot at the terminal is exposed to the middle of the current (low current region), as shown below. So the longer slot is the current density distribution is more negative (more heterogeneous), we can the following two plating tanks, one for the 210cm of the plating bath, a plating tank for the 90cm, it is clear from the experiment to look for out.
We are very obvious to see, 210cm tank plating current density of the second side is the middle of the slot 4 to 5 times, and 90cm side plating current density of the second slot to slot but not the middle of the 2 times (about 1.7 times). The longer the plating bath can be seen on the current density the more good, so when you open the average current density is high, the second side in the plating tank is likely close to the burnt area coating, plating is not peeling at this time (due to charred coating is a good coating coverage), is burned. And the theory is introduced as a two-terminal plating bath is uniform current (current of each half). So, in fact, if the plating bath plating machine ends of the incoming current is uneven, that the distribution of current density is even more outrageous. That said, we still have a way to improve this problem, and that is to use masking technology! As Figure 210cm plating bath, we use the shelter has been greatly improved after the problem of uneven distribution of current density, plating tank even better than 90cm, the height difference of about only 1.3 times the current, as shown below.
Sixth, the current density and the terminal position in the relationship between the plating bath:
As the sub-tank plating anodes are fixed, and the height is much greater than the terminal height of the anode, so the cathode (terminal) in the plating bath often have to withstand high current local group, as shown below. Therefore, a single terminal, there are two sides to bear unilateral or higher current density.
VII, integrated relationship:
Plating on the above-mentioned area , ã€Yin and Yang from theã€‘, sub-slot length, slot positionã€‘ ã€four major factors, if the plating, these four factors are in the worst state, then re- good medicine, plating the effect will not be satisfactory. If we can make good use of several current density technology, I believe that regardless of any terminal plating is easy.
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1-BG20162 group of continuous casting mold copper alloy plating information box
2-BG20162 in the chromic acid plating bath method of removing metal impurities material
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