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Actinomycetes actinomycete very close relationship with humans, people to see the doctor, the doctor based on the patient's cause, often prescribe streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin and other antibiotics. These are the actinomycete antibiotics manufactured for us. Far from the thousands of microorganisms found in antibiotics, of which 2 / 3 is produced by the actinomycetes, and some actinomycetes also used to produce vitamins and enzymes, sewage treatment and so on. So, while there are several actinomycetes cause human, animal, plant diseases, such as human skin and lungs caused by disease, but most actinomycetes Quedui control human, animal and plant diseases set a great achievement. Actinomycetes bacteria is actually a member of the family, are a class of filamentous branching Gram-positive cells of bacteria, named for the colony radial, actinomycetes most like to live in organic-rich slightly alkaline soil, the soil of the unique "smell of mud" is produced by the actinomycetes. By drying, heating and chemical treatments such as selective separation method can be selected from the soil we need good bacteria actinomycetes. A prokaryotic groups. Most have well-developed branching hyphae. Hyphae slender, nearly the width of rod-shaped bacteria, approximately 0.5 to 1 micron. Can be divided into: vegetative hyphae, also known as substrate mycelium, the main function is to absorb nutrients, and some can produce different colors, is an important basis for strain identification; aerial hyphae, was born in vegetative hyphae on the stack, also known as secondary hyphae. In the aerial mycelium produces spores on the differentiation of the spores silk, silk spore shape and arrangement vary by species. Mature spores have clusters of spores on the wire. Spore surface structure, shape and color stable under certain conditions, an important basis for the identification of species. The fracture mode of asexual spore and cell reproduction. The vast majority of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria. Some species may be at a high temperature decomposition of cellulose and other complex organic matter. Is widely distributed in nature, most of saprophytic, parasitic minority. Produce a wide variety of antibiotics, it is estimated that 4,000 kinds of antibiotics have been found, 2 / 3 is produced by actinomycetes. And human relations are very close. There are important: Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Nocardia genus and so on. Streptomyces (Streptomyces) is the highest such as actinomycetes. Well developed branching mycelium, mycelium-free diaphragm, to differentiate into vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae, 65 Sporothrix. Sporothrix then formed conidia. Spores and spore forms of silk, the color varies by species, is the minute one of the main identifying characteristics. There are more than a thousand species have been reported, mainly distributed in the soil. Produced by actinomycetes known antibiotics are produced by the 90%. Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences under the aerial mycelium (spore heap) the color, the color of substrate mycelium, soluble pigment, Sporothrix shape, the shape and surface structure of spores and other features, this is divided into 14 species groups Each species group also includes many different species of the genus Streptomyces as various as the identification and search for new antibiotics based on bacteria. The case in the main representative of Streptomyces griseus streptomycin. Micromonospora sp (Micromonospora) mycelium slender, 0.3 to 0.6 microns in diameter, with branches, not broken. Only the formation of vegetative hyphae (substrate mycelium), in-depth within the medium, do not form aerial hyphae. Spores solitary, sessile, or the students in the long or short stalk spores, the spores often stems branched clusters. Colony is small, typically 2 to 3 microns in diameter, usually orange or red, while a dark brown black, blue, covered with a layer of powder-like spores. Generally aerobic saprophytic. Mostly in the soil or lake mud, compost and manure are also many. About 30 kinds. Is a genus of more antibiotic. Some species also accumulated vitamin B12. Important representatives of the spine, such as gentamicin produced spore bacteria and crimson Micromonospora Micromonospora sp. Figure 2, the form of small-sp (show solitary stems spores and spores) Nocardia Figure 3 (shown broken branch hyphae) Nocardia (Ncardia) that the original Actinomyces. In the medium to form the typical branching mycelium, bend, or bend, the majority of non-aerial hyphae. Cultured mycelium 15 hours to 4 have no diaphragm, a sudden growth of short break close to the same rod, ring body, or rod-shaped body with a fork. Each rod has at least one nuclear body, so you can copy and form new multinucleated mycelium. Streptomyces colony colony generally smaller than the surface wrinkled, dry and dense, touch broken. Mostly aerobic type of saprophytic fungi, a few anaerobic parasites. More than 100 species have been reported, mainly in the soil. Can produce many kinds of antibiotics such as rifamycin (rifomycin), etc., and some for oil dewaxing, hydrocarbon fermentation and sewage treatment. Non-specific immunity (nonspecificimmunity), also known as innate immunity, the immune species. Is the body in the long-term phylogenetic and evolutionary process, and continue with the outside world invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and other antigens and the role of foreign contacts, and gradually built up a defense mechanism. Its characteristics are: (1) innate, determined by genetic factors, the relative stability. (2) the role of broad, non-selective, for many pathogenic microorganisms and foreign antigens have some immunity. (3) has the kind of difference. That is, people and animals and their products of certain pathogenic microorganisms can not have a natural sensitivity. Such as: chicken cholera person; chicken on anthrax are not feelings. (4) in anti-infection immunity appeared earlier, the role of fast, and intensity of reaction is relatively stable, not because of exposure to an antigen in the number of how much things have changed. Composition of many ingredients of non-specific immunity, including the body of the barrier structures, phagocytic cell system, the complement system and body fluids of other antimicrobial substances. Non-specific immunity is the basis of specific immunity is the basic condition for the artificial immune. In the anti-infection immunity, the first non-specific immune function; with the formation of specific immunity, the two complement each other and expand immune function. Therefore, the enhanced non-specific immunity, is to improve an important aspect of immunity. Reference: City of Anhui Province in the Science Museum places
Mycoplasma (mycoplasma): also known as Mycoplasma, for the smallest found so far the simplest prokaryotes. Mycoplasma cells is the only visible organelle ribosome (Mycoplasma is the original cells, cell organelles of prokaryotic ribosomes only.) [Edit this paragraph] Finding Mycoplasma was found in 1898, is a simple prokaryotes. Its size ranged between bacteria and viruses. Structure is relatively simple, the majority of spherical, there is no cell wall, only a three-tier structure of the cell membrane, it has a large variability. Mycoplasma can be inoculated in a special growth medium, this method with the clinical diagnosis. And the urinary and reproductive tract infections is mainly related to decomposition of urea, both Mycoplasma and Mycoplasma hominis, about 20-30% of patients with non-gonococcal urethritis is caused by the above two mycoplasma, non-gonococcal urethritis and cervical Yan's second largest pathogens. In adults, the decomposition of urea urogenital Mycoplasma hominis infection primarily of activities, that is, with the number of sexual intercourse, related to the number of sexual partners, whether men and women alike. According to statistics, more women in higher mycoplasma infection, indicating that the female reproductive tract more than the growth of the male reproductive tract mycoplasma. In addition, the decomposition of urea Mycoplasma hominis infection rate than the rate of infection is high. [Edit this paragraph] * form and structure of traits
The size of mycoplasma 0.2 ~ 0.3um, bacteria can pass filter device, often to the cell culture has caused pollution problems. No cell wall, unable to maintain a fixed shape and showed polymorphism. Gram stain color is not easy, it is commonly used to dye Giemsa staining purple. Higher cholesterol content in cell membranes, accounting for about 36%, maintaining the integrity of the membrane has a certain role. Who can function in cholesterol substances (such as amphotericin B, saponin, etc.) can cause damage to the membrane of Mycoplasma Mycoplasma leaving death.
Mycoplasma genome is a circular to double-stranded DNA, molecular weight is small (only one-fifth of E. coli), synthesis, and metabolism is limited.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae at one end of a special terminal (terminal structure), can make mycoplasma respiratory epithelial cells adhere to the surface, and pathogenicity.
* Cultural characteristics
Higher than normal nutritional requirements of bacteria, in addition to adding basic nutrients needed outside the 10 to 20% human or animal serum cholesterol required to provide the mycoplasma. Optimum pH7.8 ~ 8.0, below 7.0 deaths, but the optimal Ureaplasma urealyticum pH6.0 ~ 6.5.
Most facultative anaerobic, some strains isolated in the early growth of 5% CO2 was added better. Slow growth, low content in the solid agar medium incubated for 2 to 3 days the typical "fried egg-like" colonies: round (diameter 10 ~ 16um), the core part of the thick, long down into the medium surrounding the a thin transparent layer of granular zone. In addition, the mycoplasma but also in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane or the growth of cultured cells.
Reproduction diverse, mainly binary fission reproduction, as well as fracture, branching, budding, etc., owed much to the lack of cell walls that divide all the time due to the size of two daughter cells. Meanwhile, the mycoplasma DNA copy of their division and are not synchronized, the body can form a multi-core filament.
* Biochemical reactions and classification
Mycoplasma generally break down the glucose can not use arginine, can take advantage of arginine can not break down glucose, whereby mycoplasma can be divided into two categories (see Table 19 - 1). Ureaplasma urealyticum can not use glucose or arginine, but can use urea as a source of energy.
Mycoplasma has a variety of specific surface antigenic structure, there is little cross-reaction with type-specific. By growth inhibition test (Growth inhibition test, GIT), metabolic inhibition test (Metabolic inhibition test, MIT) and other support of the original antigen can be identified, were classified.
Mycoplasma and bacterial resistance to heat similar. Sensitive to environmental osmotic pressure, osmotic pressure can cause mutations in cells rupture. Heavy metal salt, carbolic acid, to Sur and some surfactant sensitive than bacteria, but thallium acetate, crystal violet and sub-chem major resistance than bacteria. Affect cell wall synthesis is not sensitive to antibiotics such as penicillin, but erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and other effects of antibiotics on mycoplasma ribosome, inhibit or affect protein synthesis, there is the role of mycoplasma killing.
* Pathogenicity and immunity
Mycoplasma does not invade tissues and blood, but in the respiratory tract or urogenital epithelial cell adhesion and settled in, the cell damage caused by different mechanisms, such as access to the cell membrane lipids and cholesterol on the membrane damage caused by the release of nerve (external) toxins, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxide.
Macrophages, lgG and lgM are some of Mycoplasma in vitro. The SlgA respiratory mucosal antibodies has demonstrated the role of preventing mycoplasma adsorption. In children, sensitized lymphocytes can enhance the body's resistance to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. [Edit this paragraph]ã€‘ pathogenic mycoplasma infections, pneumonia from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and genital mycoplasma major urinary and reproductive tract infection. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, also known as primary atypical pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, all year round disease, more common in winter, may have little popular. Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common pre-school children and young people, pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, mainly through droplet transmission, incubation period is longer, up to 2 to 3 weeks. Although the longer course of mycoplasma pneumonia, severe lung disease, inflammation, slow absorption, but the vast majority are good prognosis, complications are less. Genital mycoplasma infection is clear in recent years, a new sexually transmitted diseases. Transmitted mainly through sexual contact adult, newborn from the mother during delivery of reproductive tract infections. Adult male urethral mucosa at the site of infection, the site of infection in the cervix of women. The main cause neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia. [Edit this paragraph]ã€‘ Mycoplasma laboratory diagnostic methods: morphology, mycoplasma culture, antigen detection, serology and molecular biology methods. Ureaplasma urealyticum MB antigen studies have shown that: MB antigen of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection is identified in the major outer membrane antigens, with species-specific, including serum-specific and cross reactive epitopes. MB antigen gene encode more than 1,200 base pairs long, N terminal 1 / 3 of the conserved regions, including group-specific epitopes: C terminal 2 / 3 is composed of the variable region of repeated sequences, including type-specific epitopes cluster, the antigens and for the study of disease pathogenesis and immune mechanisms play an important role. Ureaplasma urealyticum MB antigen at the surface of the membrane, N end is fixed on the membrane of the C terminal repeat regions exposed to the microenvironment around microorganisms. N-type can be used as the basis of their grouping, C terminal is most likely the first encounter with the host defense system caused by the major antibody response, is to understand its pathogenesis and the basis of the immune system. MB antigen and the relationship between diseases and its role in disease remains to be further explored.
Determination of serum Mycoplasma antibody test method, there are specific serological test mycoplasma and non-specific serological tests: serological detection of Mycoplasma specificity, the most commonly used complement fixation test, while indirect immunofluorescence staining method, growth inhibition tests, metabolic inhibition test, indirect hemagglutination test, enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and so on. Mycoplasma serological methods are non-specific agglutination of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Streptococcus MG agglutination test for diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae could play a supporting role. Detection of specific IgG antibody method still can not achieve the purpose of early diagnosis, antigen detection is the development direction of future research. At present, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescence labeling antibodies, Mycoplasma pneumoniae membrane protein monoclonal antibodies and reverse indirect hemagglutination method to directly detect mycoplasma antigens in secretions and body fluids reported, with high specificity and sensitivity. After being infected by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, IgM and IgG to produce specific antibody class. IgM class antibodies appeared earlier and 1 week after infection usually appear 3 to 4 weeks of the peak, then gradually decreased. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in the incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks, when symptoms and treatment when patients, IgM antibodies have reached very high levels, IgM antibodies can be used as diagnostic indicators of acute infection. If IgM antibody negative, you can not deny the Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, IgG antibodies to be detected. IgG appears later than IgM, to be dynamic observation, such as recent infection was significantly higher tips, significantly lower that in the late stage of infection. [Edit this paragraph] cultureã€‘ cell culture (in particular, passage cells) were mycoplasma contamination is a worldwide problem. Domestic and international research shows that more than 95% of the following four Mycoplasma: oral mycoplasma (M.orale), arginine mycoplasma (M.arginini), Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M.hyorhinis) and Levin's original body of free cholesterol (A. laidlawii), the bovine origin. These are the most common mycoplasma contamination of cell culture bacteria, but can contaminate many types of cells, mycoplasma, and foreign surveys show that about two dozen of mycoplasma contamination of cells, some cells can simultaneously two or more contaminated Mycoplasma.
Mycoplasma contamination sources, including the work of environmental pollution, contamination of the operator itself (some Mycoplasma is a normal flora in the body), medium pollution, pollution caused by mycoplasma cells cross-contamination, laboratory equipment and used by the pollution caused by cells, tissues or organs of the pollution source.
Tissue and cell culture work, mainly from the following aspects to the prevention of mycoplasma contamination: control of environmental pollution; rigorous experimental operation; cell culture media and equipment to ensure sterility; in cell culture by adding an appropriate amount of antibiotics. Mycoplasma contamination cells, especially important cell lines required the removal of mycoplasma commonly used antibiotics, treatment methods, anti-serum treatment, antibiotics, anti-serum and complement plus combined treatment. The most prominent structural features of mycoplasma is no cell wall, in general, on the role of antibiotics in cell wall biosynthesis, such as the - lactam, vancomycin, and so completely insensitive; of polymyxin (polymycin), rifampin, generally resistant to sulfa drugs. Inhibitory activity against Mycoplasma and the most commonly used antibiotics in the treatment of mycoplasma infection are tetracyclines, macrolides and some fluoroquinolones; other antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, smaller inhibitory effect on the mycoplasma, so often do not Mycoplasma infections as a chemotherapeutic agent.
Mycoplasma bacteria are sometimes referred to as type plasmid. No cell wall, with irregular spherical, filamentous, can branch, camp or saprophytic parasitic symbiosis. Generally targeted against animals and plants, can cause many diseases.
Mycoplasma (Mycoplasmal) is currently available can be found in the absence of growth and reproduction of life and Prudential in the smallest micro-organisms. Mycoplasma body diversity, basically spherical, also was club-like or filamentous, the colonies were pinpoint size, it is also known as small mycoplasma. Mycoplasma-free cell wall and the former is characterized by the body, few organelles. DNA, GC content is low, the body has a very small bacterium genome, the molecular weight of about 45 Ã— 108, bacterial cell size is about 0.2-0.3Î¼m, rarely more than 1.0Î¼m. Composed of three proteins and lipids from the membrane-like structure and a layer of similar structure and composition of hair. Mycoplasma by the binary fission reproduction, morphology and diverse. Mycoplasma stain easily with normal color, very light staining with Giemsa, Gram stain was negative. Mycoplasma in the chick chorioallantoic membrane or cell culture growth. With culture medium. Higher nutritional requirements than bacteria. Because it is not the cell wall, thus affecting cell wall synthesis of antibiotics such as penicillin, which are not sensitive, but erythromycin, tetracycline, kanamycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and other antibiotics acting on the ribosome, inhibit or of mycoplasma protein synthesis, anti-mycoplasma effect of mycoplasma on the thermal resistance is low, usually 55 â„ƒ for 15 minutes after the treatment can inactivate. Phenol, Lysol children and easy to kill. Into urea in the medium and the indicator of Manganese Sulfate easy to identify with other mycoplasma.
It is widely distributed in nature, there are more than 80 species. Human mycoplasma pneumonia related to Mycoplasma (M-pneumonie, Mp), Mycoplasma hominis (M.humenis, MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (Ureaplasma urealyticum, UU Mycoplasma decomposition of urea) and genital mycoplasma (M.genitalium, MG), etc.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes pneumonia. Has been isolated from the human urogenital tract 7 out of mycoplasma, including higher rate of separation with the urogenital tract diseases, is UU, followed by Mycoplasma hominis. Mycoplasma hominis (M.humenis, MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (Ureaplasma urealyticum, UU) and genital mycoplasma (M.genitalium, MG) can cause urinary and reproductive tract infection.
UU (ureaplasma ure-alyticum) is a prokaryotic microorganism, was club-shaped, the size of 125-250 nm, the molecular weight of 4.5 * 108, a high degree of polymorphism, there is no rigid cell wall, bacteria in culture without in the proliferation, can produce enzymes break down urea, urea decomposition. Specific antibodies can inhibit its growth, because of the lack of hard membrane, resistant to penicillin, have affinity for cell membranes, growth and reproduction material need steroids. Tetracycline, erythromycin, spectinomycin on the force. Baby or no sexual contact, not found in the female genital tract ureaplasma urealyticum. The sex life more chaotic, the higher the positive rate of this mycoplasma. Mc Donald 1982 report of 587 cases of patients with acute urethritis symptoms, 209 patients (36%) isolated from urine in the UU.
Mycoplasma hominis (mycoplasma hominis) Mycoplasma weak resistance to the external environment, 45 â„ƒ 15min can be killed. Of soap, alcohol, tetracycline, erythromycin sensitive. [Edit this paragraph] mechanismã€‘ Mycoplasma can only adhere to the respiratory tract or urogenital epithelial cell surface receptors, but not into the tissue and blood. Mycoplasma cell damage caused by the reasons as follows: adhesion to host cells from the surface of mycoplasma cells to absorb nutrients, lipids and cholesterol obtained from the cell membrane, causing cell damage; Mycoplasma metabolism of toxic substances, such as soluble mycoplasma can produce nerve toxins nerve, causing membrane damage; urealyticum containing urease, hydrolysis of urea can produce large amounts of ammonia, a toxic effect on cells. In addition to adhesion of Mycoplasma cells, macrophages, can also adhere to the sperm surface, thereby preventing sperm motility, which produces neuraminidase-like substance that can interfere with sperm and egg combination. This is the infertility caused by mycoplasma infection in one of the reasons.
In animal experiments showed that peritoneal macrophages can kill mycoplasma, but not the role of neutrophils. In vitro, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody opsonization. Can enhance macrophage killing effect of mycoplasma. [Edit this paragraph] comparedã€‘ L-form bacteria in antibiotics, such as under the action of lysozyme into a cell wall-deficient bacteria and mycoplasma like many of its features, useful in the identification of the need to distinguish between the two ( see table below).
Table 19-2 mycoplasma bacteria and the difference between L-type
L-form bacteria Mycoplasma
Growth in the most widespread in nature to be cholesterol
Nothing to do with the bacteria at the genetic, and no matter under what conditions bacteria can not become
Colonies smaller, 0.1 ~ 0.3mm natural growth does not necessarily require little presence of cholesterol
Genetically associated with the original strain, and induction factors in the recovery after removal of the original strain
Colonies slightly larger, 0.5 ~ 1.0mm
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. Pneumonia) is a human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumonia, the main pathological changes of the interstitial pneumonia, sometimes complicated by bronchial pneumonia, known as primary atypical pneumonia. Transmitted mainly through droplets, the incubation period 2 to 3 weeks, the highest incidence of young people. Mild clinical symptoms, or even asymptomatic, if only headache, sore throat, fever, cough and other respiratory symptoms in general, but there are also reports of individual deaths. Can occur throughout the year, but more in autumn and winter season.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae disease first through the top of the structure of its host cell surface adhesion, and stretched out into the cellular microtubule absorb nutrients, damage the cell membrane, then release the nucleic acid enzyme, hydrogen peroxide metabolism caused by the dissolution of cells, epithelial cells swelling and necrosis. Induce the body to produce antibodies may also be involved in the pathological damage. Respiratory secretions SlgA defense against reinfection has some effect, but not strong enough.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae diagnostic methods rely mainly on isolation and culture and serological tests. Samples can be collected sputum or throat of patients suspected child tested, inoculated with serum or yeast extract agar medium. 5 to 10 days to observe whether the diameter of 30 ~ 100um round roof-like colonies. After several passages into the typical "fried egg"-like colonies, and can absorb a variety of animal red blood cells and airway epithelial cells, HeLa cells, etc, and that such absorption can be inhibited by specific antibodies. Mycoplasma separated by morphology, hemolysis and biochemical response after the initial identification of specific antiserum to be used for further growth inhibition test and metabolic inhibition test. With serum lipid and Mycoplasma complement fixation test antigen for the recovery stage of acute phase titer than 4 times higher than with diagnostic value. Also by indirect immunofluorescence test, indirect hemagglutination ELISA test specimens. In addition, 1 / 3 to 3 / 4 serum with human O-erythrocytes at 4 â„ƒ with non-specific agglutination (known as "agglutination"), 37 â„ƒ when the disappearance of illness peaked during the week. This method is simple and helpful in the diagnosis. [Edit this paragraph] Effects The Mycoplasma effects on male reproductive system
Transurethral mycoplasma infection can occur in patients with urethritis symptoms, and secondary to chronic prostatitis. When checking the prostate, showing a lively, swimming microbial groups. Mycoplasma infection has also continued to fine Road, seminal vesicles and testes, affect the quality of sperm and semen, causing infertility. The observation that mycoplasma caused by the following aspects of infertility.
1. Interfere with sperm motility: sperm motility is an important function of healthy sperm, the sperm is a measure of whether an important indicator of pregnancy, and sperm movement must have a certain speed and frequency. Sperm after mycoplasma infection, often attached to the sperm head and tail, the whole covered with the sperm of different size attachments, resulting in sperm mobility, weakness, wound each other, resulting in infertility.
2. Increase in abnormal sperm: sperm deformity rate of mycoplasma infection can cause infertility caused by the increase in the other characteristics. According to clinical observations, in this type of infertility, the sperm deformity can sometimes be as high as 80%.
3. Destruction of spermatogenic cells: testicular seminiferous tubules in a large number of germ cells, the development of germ cells reproduce by the formation of sperm. When the mycoplasma from the urethra, prostate and other parts into the testicular seminiferous tubules, the germ cells will be destroyed, so that the "germ factories" produce inferior products, leading to infertility.
Mycoplasma effects on the female reproductive system
UU may invade the urethra, cervix and vestibular gland, causing urethritis, cervicitis and bartholinitis; ascending infection, can cause endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis, salpingitis more common in particular. Ureaplasma urealyticum infection caused by pathological changes in female genital mutilation is a major cause of infertility. Domestic and international data suggest that infertile couples in the cervical mucus, semen culture positive rate of UU as high as 50% or more, we can see that UU infection and correlation between the occurrence of infertility. Ureaplasma urealyticum infection adverse Another reason is abortion, some tissue from the abortion check out the UU positive rate as high as 40%. Therefore, unexplained miscarriage, especially repeated abortion, should consider the possibility of solvability of Mycoplasma infection. Ureaplasma urealyticum infection caused by partial obstruction of salpingitis adhesions, stenosis can, through the poor, or an important cause of ectopic pregnancy occurred.
Pregnant women, due to the increase in progesterone, inhibited cellular immunity, the body defenses are weakened and more vulnerable to infection UU, UU perinatal infection is caused by new problems in modern obstetrics. UU for vertical transmission via the placenta or maternal lower genital tract infection by the upward diffusion, caused by intrauterine infection, both of which can lead to miscarriage, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight children, premature rupture of membranes, or even result in fetal intrauterine death and a series of adverse consequences. [Edit this paragraph] is characterizedã€‘ Mycoplasma can find no life in the smallest Prudential in the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Mycoplasma body diversity, basically spherical, also was club-like or filamentous, the colonies were pinpoint size, it is also known as small mycoplasma. Urinary tract infection can cause a human Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. Mainly through sexual contact, a few can also be transmitted indirectly. Is its susceptibility to urinary tract cells. Because it is not the cell wall, thus affecting cell wall synthesis of antibiotics such as penicillin, which are not sensitive to erythromycin, tetracycline, kanamycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and other antibiotics acting on the ribosome, inhibit or affect Mycoplasma protein synthesis, inhibit the mycoplasma, but does not cure, the body can not make them immune antibody, easily repeated, the current use of Chinese medicine treatment can compensate for this deficiency.
Mycoplasma is the smallest and most simple independent living prokaryotes. It does not figure given form, morphological changes with the environment, in the liquid can be spherical, circular and filamentous; it has no cell wall, only the three-tier structure of the cell membrane. UU (the only confirmed one) with urease activity, can break down urea. Infected with the human body, through the adhesion receptors on host cells, causing cell membrane damage, and its metabolites have toxic effects. In addition to chlamydia may cause urethritis, conjunctivitis, it can also cause epididymitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, vaginitis, salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease and so on. Newborn through the birth canal may be the eye infection conjunctivitis, pneumonia. Male homosexuals, may be suffering from proctitis and pharyngitis.
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